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Diagnostics are the tools and techniques used to determine a patients severity and determine the extent of the injury or illness.

Vital Signs are the measurements of essential body functions such as breathing, heart rate and blood pressure to determine the current state of the patient. 

Heart rate or pulse rate is a measure of how many times your heart beats in a minute. This is written as BPM for Beats Per Minute. Normal pulse ranges are listed below.

Adult (>12 yrs): 60-100 BPM

Pediatric (1-12 yrs): 80-140 BPM

Infant (1-12 months): 100-190 BPM

Neonate (<1 month): 140-205 BPM

Respirations or breathing rate is the number of times a person breaths in and out in one minute. Normal breathing rates are listed below.

Adult (>12 yrs): 12-20 per minute

Pediatric (1-12 yrs): 20-30 per minute

Infant (1-12 months): 20-30 per minute

Neonate (<1 month): 30-50 per minute

A blood pressure measures two numbers: the static base pressure in your arteries between heart beats (diastolic pressure) and then the peak pressure in your arteries at the climax of your heart beat (systolic pressure). These pressures are measured in millimeters of mercury and are written “mmHg.”

Normals pressures are listed below. Normal pressures can fluctuate a bit and each patients has a slightly different pressure which is normal for them.

Adult (>12 yrs): 120/80

Pediatric Systolic BP Formula:
2 x age in years + 80

Measured by a pulse oximeter, this vital sign is often shortened to “o2 sats.” This number is expressed as an average percentage of the hemoglobin in your blood that have oxygen attached to them. Simply put, you should have an oxygen saturation between 94-100% meaning that most of the cells in your blood that are supposed to carry oxygen are actually doing what they are supposed to do…carrying oxygen. When using a pulse ox it is important to know that these devises can easily give you false information. Watch our video to the right to get a better understanding of how this tool works and also how it can fail. 

Normal Oxygen Levels: 94-100%

Mild Hypoxia – 89-93%

Moderate Hypoxia – 84-88%

Severe Hypoxia – <84%

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